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Saavedra, Angel de, duque de Rivas

He strives toward Galatea ; the waters seem to be touched with the pulses of love, his glass is shattered against her shell 1 ; the wonder of the sea is accomplished. The manner in which it is done is directly traceable to the Amor who guides Gala- tea's dolphins in Raphael's famous picture. While the other Amors are up in the air with bows and arrows, this one alone is on the water and without arrows, and his head seems almost to touch the chariot of shell.

J Valentin's Homunculus-Helena theory has been disproved by me in the Modern Language Notes, first in February, , and, after a rejoinder from Valentin, more fully in April, Helena has corporeal being within the revivified Greek world, but this world has not the material reality of most other parts of Faust. Both the Helena drama and the Walpurgis-Night are phantas- magories and in the one as well as in the other the poet takes special pains to remind us now and then of this fact.

The whole Helena drama was composed without any reference to Homunculus because half a year later Homunculus was still conceived as having a body from the start. The union of Homunculus with the sea has nothing to do with Helena because according to the scheme of June 18, , Helena was to leave Hades only in the third act. Yet this Eros is not the son of Aphrodite but the great god whom cosmogonies place at the beginning of all things. This Eros is to preside over the beginning of Homunculus' career.

So herrsche denn Eros der alles begonnen! At the same time, however, the flames are taken in their elemental sense and fire and watei remind of the share which air and earth also have in the further development of animal life. Thus the Classical Walpurgis-Night closes with a grand and universal homage to each and all of the elements. Heil dem Meere! Heil den Wogen!

Von dem heiligen Feuer umzogen ; Heil dem Wasser! Heil dem Feuer! Heil dem seltnen Abentheuer! Heil den mildgewogenen Liiften! Heil geheimnissreichen Griiften! Hochgefeiert seid allhier, Element' ihr alle vier! Du erstaunest, und zeigst mir das Meer; es scheinet zu brennen. Wie bewegt sich die Fluth flammend urn's nachtliche Schiff! Mich verwundert es nicht, das Meer gebar Aphroditen, Und entsprang nicht aus ihr uns eine Flamme, der Sohn?

The connection of this epigram, quoted already by Taylor, with our scene is so clear that it seems better not to think of the passages from Calderon quoted by Max Koch in the Goethe-Jahrbuch V, f. How intent Goethe was on bringing out this contrast between sea and land, and the victory of the former over the latter may be seen from the fact that much which emphasizes that contrast and victory is later addition.

Addi- tions are in the 'Erstes Mundum,' not only the stanzas beginning ' Weg! An addition is lastly, and one by Goethe's own hand, both in H 73 and in the principal manuscript the double exclamation point which distinguishes the line ' Alles ist aus dem Wasser entsprungen! What was Goethe then to do with the scene in Hades when the connected work, apart from various separate groups of lines which no doubt existed, had advanced as far as the 'Erstes Mundum' extends? If he wished to retain the scene at all he could only choose between inserting it in the gap after the scene with Chiron or placing it at the close of the act for which it had always been intended.

Let us imagine for a moment he had inserted it in the gap together with the conversations about Helena and Manto, and the arrival at Manto's and the prom- ise of her aid which were actually accommodated there! In the first place, this would have made the Faust episode, which has become rather lengthy as it is, so long that the dramatic struc- ture of the Night would have been disrupted. In the second place, and that is more important still, this would have destroyed all interest in the rest of the Night.

For after the reader or spectator had once witnessed the grant of Helena's release, he would have looked forward to her appearance and would have been annoyed by anything else. Hence it is very natural that there should be no evidence whatever that Goethe ever intended to insert the scene in Hades in this place, nor would such a possi- bility have been considered in these lines, had not a number of A.

So there remained only the place at the close, either after the present grand finale, or after another ending. It requires no special proof that the former alternative was impossible. Noth- ing could stand after that finale without unbalancing the general dramatic structure. But the latter alternative was not much better either. After the sea scene had once been brought down to the point where the procession of Galatea enters, its close had to be in the main as it is now.

Even if some means had been devised for toning it down, the addition of the scene in Hades would still have disturbed the dramatic balance of the whole. This being the case there was nothing left but to make of it an independent introduction to the third act, and this was done in the scheme of June 18, which reads as follows: Prolog des dritten Acts. Proserpina verhiillt. Manto tragt vor Die Konigin an ihr Erdeleben erinnernd.

Unterhaltung von der verhiillten Seite, melodisch artikulirt scheinend aber unvernehmlich. Faust wiinscht sie entschleyert zu sehen. Vorhergehende Entziickung Manto fiihrt ihn schnell zuriick. Jetzt auf Spartanischem Gebiet soil sie sich lebendig erweisen. Der Freyer suche ihre Gunst zu erwerben. Manto ist die Einleitung iiberlassen.

Juni It is evident that this scheme is based on the revised form of the scheme of February 6, and its very fullness proves that Goethe had given new thought to the matter and seriously intended to execute the scene. Why he finally abandoned it after all can only be a matter of conjecture. He may have thought that a short prologue would not fulfill its object or that a long one would impair the dramatic balance of the act. We know only that Goethe ventured to leave the scene to the imagination of the reader or spectator for some reason or other, and it seems better to refrain from speculation where a definite result cannot be reached.

The object of this paper will have been accomplished if it be regarded as a contribution to a clearer understanding of the Classical Walpurgis-Night, and if it has proved that the peculiar dramatic evolution of the prose outline of forced the scene in Hades out of the second act. Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. I am under obligation to Carl Schiiddekopf for a com- munication with regard to the size of the space which was left after the first part of the scene with Chiron in the ' Erstes Mundum.

XV, 2. He has arrived at conclusions which have the merit of fearless candor, but are, possibly, not acceptable on the ground of impartiality. As a student of English literature, and also of the literature of other nations, Professor Dowden has gained considerable reputation and influence, and for this reason it is impossible to pass his remarks over in silence, especially as they were made before a body of avowed students of Goethe, the English Goethe Society.

In making this reply the present writer is animated only by that love of truth of which Goethe has said that it is shown in the capacity of finding everywhere the good ; and if he should emphasize more than necessary one or the other evident truth, he hopes to be pardoned in the spirit of Shakespeare's : " Truth can never be affirmed enough, Though doubts should ever sleep. These facts rest on good evidence — but what about the essential truth concerning the great poet? We know that there never existed a great poet who was not the child of his times, and who did not, for this very reason, bear more or less the imprint of the good and bad features of these times.

If we say that a certain author wrote for all time, we mean only that he expressed with great force and truth the essentials of human nature in the modulations and vicissitudes of his time. We know — Professor Dowden certainly knows — that all masterpieces are composed of elements which were accessible to all, having come down through the ages, or were the result of social, political, scientific or artistic activities, changes and revolutions.

We know that a great poet uses these elements with sovereign power, but yet under limitations imposed upon him by the influences that shaped his character and his life ; and, knowing all this, we feel justified in unhesitatingly assign- ing to a poet like Shakespeare the rank which he has so long held in the estimation of the most competent scholars. But what is true and proper in this treatment of Shakespeare should be the rule with a poet like Goethe as well.

I have no doubt Professor Dowden will readily admit this. Will he also admit that the following statements of his, taken from a brief outline of his paper which the London Chronicle gave at the time, do not conform to this rule, and differ from this treatment? Whoever heard a real student of Goethe point to the volume of his work as a proof of his excellence as a great poet?

Victor Cherbuliez once remarked of Goethe that he was the only poet who rcas at the same time a great philosopher, and the Charles A. Goethe himself refused to be ranked among the professional philoso- phers, but he was unquestionably a true philosopher in the more original sense of the word.

He was a thinker of extraor- dinary power, depth and lucidity, and as a thinker he searched into whatever came into his reach and promised results for his intelligence. That he wrote down what occupied his mind — though what is preserved is probably not more than a mere fraction of the work he did in his life — is at least no reason why he should not be valued as a thinker and a poet ; and to say that quality counts for more than quantity is to affirm that we must blame him for that portion of his mental activity which could not be all given to poetic production.

In his long life Goethe made some mistakes ; some portions of his writings interest at present only those who make a specialty of Goethe-study, and who thus find matter of interest in every line he ever wrote ; his ' scientific ' labors have no longer their former intrinsic value, and none of them were perhaps needed to help the progress of science ; his thoughts on art, though still valuable and often of intense correctness, have long been incorporated in special treatises, or, possibly, have been distanced by later writers, and some portions of what we find in his collected works are only of secondary importance, or, let us admit the possibility, of no importance at all.

But what of that? Surely there is no reason to belittle Goethe on account of this evidence of a restless activity. The serious student finds even in these hors oToenvre of genius much that he has reason to value highly, but he would never think of establishing the fame of the great poet on labors that have little or no connec- tion with poetry. A single work, the Divina Commedia, has given immortality to Dante, yet Dante wrote vastly more than this poem in his tolerably long life. The same is true of Petrarch whose sonnets form but a very small portion of his poetical activity, but are his only title to greatness as a poet.

If Shakespeare had lived as long as Goethe, is it unreasonable 30 Goethe. And further: " Goethe's most important 7uri tings are frag- mentary or ill-organized" Had the lecturer ever considered what the term ' fragmentary ' or ' ill-organized' implies? Is a novel like the Wahlverwandt- schaften fragmentary? In what sense is Wilhelm Meister's Lehrjahre more fragmentary than, for instance, Hamlet? Hamlet is killed off by the poet — the drama comes to a forced and unnatural end by a process of stabbing and killing, apparently a concession to the bad taste of the public.

Wilhelm Meister ends his apprenticeship in a way that is surely as satisactory as any other possible solution. Is Faust fragmentary? Faust is the standing- wonder of the age — it has been called a ' worldly Bible ' — it is read with ever new enthusiasm by succeeding generations, by young and old, by the ordinary reader and by the most learned critic. It has been made the subject of the deepest study, it has received the closest attention, the most genuine admiration of noted men in all the civilized nations.

All these students, critics, readers, admirers of the wonderful work may be said to form a court of inquiry, and the judgment of the overwhelming majority of this court is so unanimous and so favorable that even Pro- fessor Dowden might hesitate to set up his own private opinion against it.

Is Faust ill-organized? Who will be the judge? There is such a thing as sublimity of purpose which fails in some respects in the execution. You may pick flaws in Faust as you may in Hamlet or the Divine Comedy. It is possible to go even further without injuring the unique glory of Faust.

We may admit that the second part of the poem is not popular reading ; that it does not appeal to the feelings and the intelligence of the aver- age man or woman, nay, that it is frigid, unsympathetic and, simply considered as poetry, vastly inferior to the first part. Charles A. The lecturer might hurl his shaft, provided with these two barbs, at some of the best known masterpieces in literature. The Iliad, for instance, is a fragment, for it lacks a beginning and an end : we are not told how the quarrel between Greeks and Trojans arose, and we are left in ignorance of the fate of the hero after he had slain Hector.

But this fragment is never- theless a whole, for the poet's intention was to sing only of the "wrath of Achilles. Must we call it fragmentary because it does not tell us of the zvhole life of the poet? In that case any poem would be fragmentary that singles out, say a part of a day, for instance the morning, because it does not include noon and evening. Most novels, even those of such masters as Walter Scott, Dickens, Bulwer, would have to be classed as fragmentary, because they, as a rule, tell us only what happens to their hero up to the date of his wedding day.

There is here a misconception in the mind of the lecturer which he would be ready enough to censure in one of his pupils who should be guilty of confounding the idea of unity in a composi- tion with the idea of completeness. We demand the former, but regard the latter merely as a matter of convenience and indi- vidual preference.

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The foregoing remarks may suffice to show the nature of the extraordinary utterances of a scholar who assumes the role of a critic of Goethe ; and nothing further is, possibly, called for. But the character of the meeting, and the wide publicity the lecture has received, seem to call for a more extended reply.

Professor Dowden makes the attempt of accounting for the imperfect work of the poet thus: "His career as an artist, like his life as a man, was neither single nor homogeneous ; it was, indeed, a succession of excursions and retreats. Then the romantic historical tragedy of Shakespeare and the sentimentalism of Rousseau and Ossian captured his imagination ; Goetz and Werther were resonant echoes of voices borne to him on the wind rather than original utterances of his own.

Does he not know where Shakespeare drew his inspiration? Does he know w r hat use he made of the work of others? Nay — is he so ignorant as not to know, or so forgetful as not to remember this commonplace of literary history : that one author learns from the other ; that every former great mind necessarily influences every later one?

In his Ein quidam spricht : ich bin von kcincr Schulc, etc. To deny true originality to the poet who created Werther, while fresh from his experience in Wetzlar — who wrote Goetz, while yet full of enthusiasm from the reading of the life of the old knight, with an independence of plan and treatment that leaves the old story behind like the shadow of a giant — is, to say the least, a very bold act. At any rate, will he limit this sort of treatment to Goethe, or extend it to all the other great poets of the ancient and the modern world? It is true that in Goetz the influence of Shakespeare's utter disregard of the unity of time and place is felt, but as each scene is characteristic and in the truest sense original by itself, the question of arrangement of the proper sequence of the scenes, for the purpose of presentation on the stage, is one quite distinct from the original poetry of the piece.

Professor Dowden pursues his theme with fearless, or rather reckless, energy : " Later he Goethe cast scorn on the work of this period of youthful ardor, cultivated a new classicism, or pseudo-classicism, imitated orfalsiftedthe. Greek drama, Iphigenia y invested the ideal with a pseudo-epic grandiosity in Hermann und Dorothea, cultivated by an anachronism in art an artistic sensuality, not spontaneous, but second-hand, in rivalry with Catullus, imitated Martial in his epigrams, reverted to Racine query : when and where? The lecturer seems not to have had the slightest doubt that what he said must recommend itself to the Goethe Society, and yet he must have known that the members of this society laid some claim to having looked at Goethe's works with their own eyes, and used, in reading them, their own judgment.

The society was further treated to an examination of the late ' nerveless' eclecticism of the poet's decline. He experimented endlessly toward the creation of a new German literature, but a literature that grew from the soil and was not the manufacture of tentative culture. I believe that he has been long since very sorry to have given expression to these statements which for aimlessness, lack of point and irrelevancy cannot be easily matched. It, surely, is hardly necessary to inform any student of Goethe that, so far from consciously making experiments for the crea- tion of a new literature, he was distinguished among all his fellows and rivals for his unwearied endeavor to give an outward and artistic form to the realities he met in his life.

How flip- pant is this charge of aimless wanderings! I noticed in one of our magazines an article in which Professor Sloan praises the Perorations of Bismarck's great speeches, now recognized by the most competent German literary men as masterpieces of litera- ture. But Bismarck never wrote a peroration, and all his preparation consisted in a thorough mastery of the facts which he intended to present.

That his genius was great enough to give a terse and proper expression to these facts procured him a prominent rank in the literature of his people. In this respect he did only what Goethe had done before him, and the error of Professor Sloan is therefore as great as the error of Professor Dowden.

Our interest in all that Goethe has written is so great, because we have the strongest reason to believe that he never wrote without having a definite experience in his mind, some fact or occurrence of greater or less importance which necessarily and naturally led to the verbal statement. We must add, of course, that he used such experience as a poet, allowing his artistic instinct and his poetic fancy to shape the outcome ; but he never wrote aimlessly, never indulged in mere tentative work for the purpose of possibly making a hit some time; in short, he was genuine, not factitious ; and I think Professor Lkarles A.

He could not help expressing the truth as he saw it, and what more original literature can there be than the product of such activity? Let us take an example. Goethe felt an irresistible desire to visit Italy. He starts suddenly for that country, and no sooner arrived, his attention is taken up by a variety of subjects. He works on iphigeitie, Tasso, Egmont, Faust. He applies himself to the practice of painting and sculpture, to the study of Vitru- vius and Palladio, i.

At the same time he is haunted by the problem of the morphology of the plant, and fascinated by the subject and its study ; everywhere he is on the lookout for impressions, and nowhere is he satisfied with anything at second hand. His activity is extraordinary, and that short period of less than two years ripens his" Zpkigenie, Tasso and Egmont, advances his Faust ; enables him to form a remarkable, and in the main accurate, theory of the evolution of the plant, and to enrich his mind by an extraordinary number of clear, definite and profound impressions in the world of art and nature.

While doing all this he was, in a sense, experi- menting, but the more proper term would be : he was gathering experience. It would be putting the truth on its head to speak here of aimless wanderings, for the whole movement was, in one sense at least, intended to be aimless. He means this as praise, because Germans, unlike so many writers of the French and other nationalities, do not write for literary effect, but in order to express exactly and individually whatever engages their attention.

In other words, there is no attempt at posing with the rep- resentative German authors. Many of the remarks which Professor D. One of the reasons why Moliere ranks as a truly great poet is that he, unlike so many of his countrymen, never poses. I might stop here and leave the subject to the judgment of the reader whose studies have no doubt enabled him to see at once the shallowness of this arraignment of a great poet. But there are a few points in this arraignment which deserve special attention, because they express, to some extent, an undisputed fact.

The one is that Goethe wrote some of his poems in imitation, though but rarely in conscious imitation, of Greek, Latin or French authors ; that he translated some of Voltaire's works, and that he found no great tradition in his own country to urge him on. It would be difficult to prove that the fame of a poet, or his real originality, suffers on account of having occasionally imitated another author, especially one who has long been dead.

Whether that poet be Martial or Catullus, Propertius or Voltaire, can make but little difference. Much of the best Latin literature is an imitation of the Greek ; the Greek authors themselves used earlier models, and it may be truly said that even - succeeding phase of literature is in some degree influenced by some preceding phase. Thus English literature grew by imitating Italian and French models. Shakespeare fertilized German literature, and Lessing, Herder, Schiller, Goethe and other German authors have in their turn left their mark on the literature of England, France and other countries.

It is not at all true that a literary tradition in the country of the poet is needed to urge him on. He will be urged on by his own genius, by the example of the literatures of other nations, by his contemporaries, in fact by the entire magnificent bequest of past ages. To call all the works of a poet ' tentative,' because some of them are not as perfect or as important as others, or to deny superiority to any, because some fall below the highest standard, is to play with words, or, at best, a most unfortunate attempt to enlighten the public on a subject in regard to which the speaker himself is sorely in need of light.

Chailes A. Are the authors that preceded Shakespeare of more importance than Lessing and Wieland? Was the influence of Herder of less consequence than that of the whole lot of tragedy writers whose pieces were swept into oblivion by Shakespeare?

Full text of "German American Annals"

What tradition operated in the case of Shake- speare that was not active also in the case of Goethe? Might we not much more justly say that in this respect Goethe had unquestionably an advantage over the British poet? Had Goethe experimented for a new literature, it would have been easy for him to write twice as many dramas as he did — to produce an epic with all the paraphernalia of gods and goddesses, or of angels and archangels, and to imitate any successful composition under the sky.

But he did his work in a very different spirit. He claimed emphatically and repeatedly that poetry was inspiration, and in this sense he looked upon his productions as the necessary outcome of instinctive mental action, the relation between poet and poem, to use his own simile, being like that between the bird and the egg she laid. This inward force that made him write was independent of caprice and wilfulness. The subject took hold of his mind, stayed there a while and was finally detached in a poetic form.

How is it possible to speak of a writer of such spontaneity and naturalness as an experimenter? This characteristic feature in Goethe appeared early and is so persistent throughout his poetical career that it has been noticed by every fairly careful reader. It is just as evident in his prose writings as it is in his poetry. Among the former we might specially mention the ' Campaign in France ; ' among the latter his elegy on Schiller and the four stanzas which bear the superscription Urworte ' Orphisch '.

In all these compositions, from the concrete, matter-of-fact descriptions of the ' Campaign' to the philosophical elevation of the Urworte we find the direct, individual and 38 Goethe. The idea of experimenting is utterly incompatible with such a process of composition. To speak of imitations of Martial, etc. A poet who reaches the age which Goethe did might have imitated every poet that ever wrote without incurring the risk of being judged by his imitations.

Did Goethe imitate Euripides in his Iphigenia? Did he, as Professor Dowden says, falsify the Greek iphigenia? He imitated the Greek poet as to the general outline of the drama — and he was original in every essential feature of his own drama. But because he was original, i. A remark- able way of arguing — which would leave a new poet no choice as to the use of an ancient subject! Euripides, representing the thoughts and feelings of a later generation, both imitated and changed — or must we say with Professor Dowden falsified the maiden and the goddess and the furies?

Difficile est satiram non scribere. I have felt compelled to use the great name of Shakespeare in order to point out the illogical character of the ' Case against Goethe,' because there is no other poet of modern, and perhaps of ancient times also, who compares with Goethe in the power and universality of genius pure and simple.

But it has never occurred to me to compare the two great poets in other respects. In Shakespeare's great dramas the passionate element prevails, hence they are eminently fit to fix the attention and to engage the sympathy of the spectators, both high and low, edu- cated and uneducated. This peculiar dramatic quality Goethe does not show, if we except the first part of Faust, and Egmont, in any of his dramas. What he shows may to some appear as of a higher order, appealing to the aristocrats of culture rather than to the masses ; at any rate, it must be classed separately from such soul-stirring pictures of passion as Macbeth, Othello, King Lear.

At the same time we find that the most pathetic tragedy ever written is nevertheless the work of Goethe, i. It is even more popular outside of Eng- land than any of the great tragedies of Shakespeare, but Goethe composed it, so to speak, by a happy accident tradition and personal experience joined , and he approached its interest, without quite equaling it, only in Egmont. The circumstance deserves to be particularly considered as long as such utterances as we find in the ' Case against Goethe ' can be prominently displayed before a Goethe Society.

The delicate fancy, the graceful sentiment and the easy flow of animated, infinitely varied and suggestive language in Shakespeare's comedies and other dramas have justly elicited the admiration and praise of the best critics. The theatrical work of Shakespeare impresses us as the basis of Shakespeare's fame, and as something that, taken as a whole, has never been equaled. We overlook blemishes and faults and judge from the general and overwhelming impression. With Goethe the case is different. In their own way such dramas as Tasso, Iphigenie, Egmont, Faust are possibly as per- fect and as successful as any that were ever written.

Shake- speare approaches the style of Goethe's dramas in his Hamlet, a drama in which action is subordinate to thought and fancy, as it is in the dramas of Goethe. But Goethe's character as a poet and a thinker is not completely and solely revealed in his dramas as Shakespeare's is in his, and as was nearly the case 40 Goethe. Perhaps, as some maintain, his genius was epic or lyric rather than dramatic ; at any rate, the proof of his unrivaled and undisputed superiority as a poet is found in his lyrics rather than in his dramas, and even in the latter the lyric passages are distinguished by such a glow of feeling and beauty of form and coloring that we are often carried away by them, instead of feeling the impulse of the dramatic action.

It would nevertheless be a great mistake to deny that Goethe ranks among the very greatest masters of personal characterization. His creations of characters have never been surpassed and but rarely equaled. And what infinite variety there is in them! What delicacy of shading! What felicity in often revealing a whole character by a single trait! From Werther to Faust, from Gretchen to Iphigenie — what a wealth of delineation! What fidelity of painting! In the interest of fairness one might be tempted to ask : "How did a scholar like Professor Dowden arrive at his state- ments and conclusions?

It is not probable that he expressed views without previous examination; what, then, was the nature of this examination? He found Goethe much admired by men to whom he could not deny the capacity of profound critical insight, and he was forced to admit that the great man was an original thinker of great force, an excellent judge of human nature, and unquestionably a poet and finished writer. Goethe wrote a few epigrams in the style of Martial — forth- with his critic puts him down as an experimenter ' who follows foreign models,' as though it were possible to do anything what- ever in the line of art of which there could not be found parallel attempts in the past ; as though the using of a form once in- vented deprived the one who used this form afterward of the right to be called original, no matter how individually new his work may be!

Professor Dowden surely knows that the iambic lines which we call blank verse and which were used by Shakespeare were imitated from the French and Italians ; that he borrowed the form of his sonnets from the Italians, and that, if we may say that Goethe occasionally imitated some one in the matter of form, we are forced to say the same of Shakespeare and every other poet.

And right here our critic gets entangled. On the one hand he charges Goethe with being an experimenter who follows foreign mcdels, because he wrote in the style of Martial and of Homer ; and on the other, he pities him because he lacked a great tradition, as though there could be a greater tradition than the tradition of the best poets of all the ages. He virtually says to him : "If you write a novel like Werther, I count for nothing the note of individual truth which rings through the work — but I condemn the whole work as an imita- tion, because I find that the author used the epistolary form made popular by Richardson and Rousseau, and showed that he was greatly impressed with the characteristics of Rousseau and Ossian.

In conclusion one general remark. A truth that underlies nearly all the shallow criticism of this sort remains to be stated, though it is a truism rather than a new statement. Goethe spent the greater part of his life in a small town, at a petty court and amid surroundings that would not allow the expansion of great tragic force, even if this had been the poet's specialty.

When we compare, in respect to their fate and the conditions of their lives, poets like Shakespeare, Racine, Corneille and Moliere with Goethe, we notice at once that the former sought and found the centre of their poetic activity in the capital of their country, and in close proximity to the court, while Goethe lived in a country which was yet far from having attained that unity which made a common capital and a single prominent court possible.

There was no public for tragedy in a small place like Weimar, the stimulus to write tragedy was therefore wanting, and the same was true of the higher comedy. Germany had not yet recovered from the terrible fate brought upon her by foreigners as a consequence of the great reformation. The glory of Luther's mighty work his people paid for, in the thirty years' war, by the most terrible ruin that ever befell a great nation.

Subsequently, divided into hundreds of little states, Germany fell an easy prey, at the beginning of this century, to the most skillful general of the age who had sole control of the immense resources, not only of France, but of a large number of allied German and Italian states. The national regeneration, though it was only a partial one, which caused and followed the expulsion of the French in , found Goethe too old a man to be stimulated by it.

His Charles A. Schiller, who was ten years younger and endowed with a different temper, was far more under the influence of the events of his time, especially the French revo- lution ; his tendency was more readily fixed, because he lacked the wide range of the older poet and was less likely to be diverted from the line of work which gave him at once such brilliant promise of success. Schiller had suffered oppression, hence his fiery outburst of suppressed feeling in the Robbers. Goethe had more or less enjoyed life — he had been rather fortunate in all he had undertaken, hence his temper remained genial ; it never became revolutionary ; and while he very well saw that with the success of the French revolution, after the cannonade of Valmy, a new era of history had begun cf.

Cam- pagne in Frankreich he judged rightly that the fanatical fury of the French did not suit the Germans. His life became con- templative, because no great misfortune stirred his indignation ; his poetry epic and lyric rather than dramatic, because the con- flicts in which he was involved were of an inward, personal nature, and he stood aloof from the greater political life that goes on in a great state and throbs at a great capital.

Hence the absence of violent contrasts in his dramas, of passion un- controlled, and wickedness pure and simple. His Mephistopheles even is not a devil of such incarnate wickedness as Shakespeare's Iago. There is not a ray of humanity in Iago, but Goethe's Mephistopheles is at least humorous at times, and he never tries to appear better than he is.

Is Iago, therefore, a more artistic figure than Mephistopheles? I doubt that greatly, but he is undoubtedly a more dramatic one. Goethe was imbued with the modern view of natural history which sees in the world an infinite series of transitions, and nowhere an abrupt contrast. He did not believe in com- pletely bad men as Shakespeare did, and, therefore, he did not paint such. In this we cannot help finding his undoubted superiority over Shakespeare and almost all other poets of the 44 Goethe.

But he knew that men can be very weak when tempted, and he painted such men with the irresistible truthful- ness of genius. This is already clearly visible in his Werther and his Goets. The striking originality of these two works can be denied only by a doctrinaire of the worst type — and by Professor Dowden, let us add, when he is not quite himself. But in all of these we meet with not a single character that is thoroughly bad or so moved by passion, or by a wicked purpose, as to excite our indignation.

They satisfy the demands of the highest intelligence, and it is true that the highest intelligence, any more than the best taste, is not found with the multitude. It is, however, also true, and deserves to be noted as a proof of the marvelous power of the poet's genius, that, though devoid of the popular elements of intense passion and ferocious hatred, some of his works have had a popular success of the most pronounced type. No play on the stage is more successful, even in a popular sense, than Faust ; few equal Egmont in effectiveness — one must have seen the play well acted to appreciate this — ; while Hermann und Dorothea has always been dear to the whole German people, and has been praised by other nations wherever it has become known.

Tasso and Iphigenie as dramas are great and perfect works of art, but they appeal to the cultured few rather than the masses ; and the same may be said of the two great novels. Whether or not Goethe might have produced more dramas of a type to attract the masses, if he had been placed in a city like London in the stirring age of Elizabeth, or in Paris at the court of a luxurious and glory-loving king like Louis XIV.

If Professor Dowden, or any one else, should answer it in the negative, I should feel that no particular injustice were done to Goethe. Goethe would not be Charles A. The dramatic intensity of Othello and Macbeth is very different from the moral and soulful pathos in Faust, Egmont, Tasso, Iphigenie ; but to say that the former is necessarily superior to the latter is to assume that one knows to the very core the art and the genius of both Shakespeare and Goethe.

Professor Dowden may be justified in his assumption of such a knowledge, but that it is an assumption and nothing else will scarcely be doubted by any one who will take the pains to study the works of Goethe. Chicago, Iu,. In the library of the University of Gottingen, under the cipher Cod. PhiloL, , is to be found the manuscript of a Low German ballad, which according to the introductory title had been composed to commemorate the futile attempt of Gen- eral Piccolomini to take the town of Gottingen during the thirty years' war in The ballad had been composed by a Gottingen student and seems to have enjoyed much popularity among the townspeople.

A further search revealed the fact that there existed also a printed copy of the poem upon a sheet of coarse unsized paper, and, further, that the manuscript was only a copy of the printed text made evidently by some one who desired to obtain the words and was unable to purchase a printed copy, the edition having been most likely very limited.

This I judge to be the case as the title of the piece clearly states, that it was printed at the request of many good friends by a local printer and presumably, therefore, had a very limited circulation. Be that, however, as it may, the MS. Professor Dowden makes the attempt of accounting for the imperfect work of the poet thus: "His career as an artist, like his life as a man, was neither single nor homogeneous ; it was, indeed, a succession of excursions and retreats. Then the romantic historical tragedy of Shakespeare and the sentimentalism of Rousseau and Ossian captured his imagination ; Goetz and Werther were resonant echoes of voices borne to him on the wind rather than original utterances of his own.

Does he not know where Shakespeare drew his inspiration? Does he know w r hat use he made of the work of others? Nay — is he so ignorant as not to know, or so forgetful as not to remember this commonplace of literary history : that one author learns from the other ; that every former great mind necessarily influences every later one?

In his Ein quidam spricht : ich bin von kcincr Schulc, etc. To deny true originality to the poet who created Werther, while fresh from his experience in Wetzlar — who wrote Goetz, while yet full of enthusiasm from the reading of the life of the old knight, with an independence of plan and treatment that leaves the old story behind like the shadow of a giant — is, to say the least, a very bold act. At any rate, will he limit this sort of treatment to Goethe, or extend it to all the other great poets of the ancient and the modern world?

It is true that in Goetz the influence of Shakespeare's utter disregard of the unity of time and place is felt, but as each scene is characteristic and in the truest sense original by itself, the question of arrangement of the proper sequence of the scenes, for the purpose of presentation on the stage, is one quite distinct from the original poetry of the piece. Professor Dowden pursues his theme with fearless, or rather reckless, energy : " Later he Goethe cast scorn on the work of this period of youthful ardor, cultivated a new classicism, or pseudo-classicism, imitated orfalsiftedthe.

Greek drama, Iphigenia y invested the ideal with a pseudo-epic grandiosity in Hermann und Dorothea, cultivated by an anachronism in art an artistic sensuality, not spontaneous, but second-hand, in rivalry with Catullus, imitated Martial in his epigrams, reverted to Racine query : when and where? The lecturer seems not to have had the slightest doubt that what he said must recommend itself to the Goethe Society, and yet he must have known that the members of this society laid some claim to having looked at Goethe's works with their own eyes, and used, in reading them, their own judgment.

The society was further treated to an examination of the late ' nerveless' eclecticism of the poet's decline. He experimented endlessly toward the creation of a new German literature, but a literature that grew from the soil and was not the manufacture of tentative culture. I believe that he has been long since very sorry to have given expression to these statements which for aimlessness, lack of point and irrelevancy cannot be easily matched. It, surely, is hardly necessary to inform any student of Goethe that, so far from consciously making experiments for the crea- tion of a new literature, he was distinguished among all his fellows and rivals for his unwearied endeavor to give an outward and artistic form to the realities he met in his life.

How flip- pant is this charge of aimless wanderings! I noticed in one of our magazines an article in which Professor Sloan praises the Perorations of Bismarck's great speeches, now recognized by the most competent German literary men as masterpieces of litera- ture. But Bismarck never wrote a peroration, and all his preparation consisted in a thorough mastery of the facts which he intended to present. That his genius was great enough to give a terse and proper expression to these facts procured him a prominent rank in the literature of his people.

In this respect he did only what Goethe had done before him, and the error of Professor Sloan is therefore as great as the error of Professor Dowden. Our interest in all that Goethe has written is so great, because we have the strongest reason to believe that he never wrote without having a definite experience in his mind, some fact or occurrence of greater or less importance which necessarily and naturally led to the verbal statement.

We must add, of course, that he used such experience as a poet, allowing his artistic instinct and his poetic fancy to shape the outcome ; but he never wrote aimlessly, never indulged in mere tentative work for the purpose of possibly making a hit some time; in short, he was genuine, not factitious ; and I think Professor Lkarles A. He could not help expressing the truth as he saw it, and what more original literature can there be than the product of such activity? Let us take an example. Goethe felt an irresistible desire to visit Italy. He starts suddenly for that country, and no sooner arrived, his attention is taken up by a variety of subjects.

He works on iphigeitie, Tasso, Egmont, Faust. He applies himself to the practice of painting and sculpture, to the study of Vitru- vius and Palladio, i. At the same time he is haunted by the problem of the morphology of the plant, and fascinated by the subject and its study ; everywhere he is on the lookout for impressions, and nowhere is he satisfied with anything at second hand. His activity is extraordinary, and that short period of less than two years ripens his" Zpkigenie, Tasso and Egmont, advances his Faust ; enables him to form a remarkable, and in the main accurate, theory of the evolution of the plant, and to enrich his mind by an extraordinary number of clear, definite and profound impressions in the world of art and nature.

While doing all this he was, in a sense, experi- menting, but the more proper term would be : he was gathering experience. It would be putting the truth on its head to speak here of aimless wanderings, for the whole movement was, in one sense at least, intended to be aimless. He means this as praise, because Germans, unlike so many writers of the French and other nationalities, do not write for literary effect, but in order to express exactly and individually whatever engages their attention.

In other words, there is no attempt at posing with the rep- resentative German authors. Many of the remarks which Professor D. One of the reasons why Moliere ranks as a truly great poet is that he, unlike so many of his countrymen, never poses. I might stop here and leave the subject to the judgment of the reader whose studies have no doubt enabled him to see at once the shallowness of this arraignment of a great poet. But there are a few points in this arraignment which deserve special attention, because they express, to some extent, an undisputed fact.

The one is that Goethe wrote some of his poems in imitation, though but rarely in conscious imitation, of Greek, Latin or French authors ; that he translated some of Voltaire's works, and that he found no great tradition in his own country to urge him on. It would be difficult to prove that the fame of a poet, or his real originality, suffers on account of having occasionally imitated another author, especially one who has long been dead.

Whether that poet be Martial or Catullus, Propertius or Voltaire, can make but little difference. Much of the best Latin literature is an imitation of the Greek ; the Greek authors themselves used earlier models, and it may be truly said that even - succeeding phase of literature is in some degree influenced by some preceding phase. Thus English literature grew by imitating Italian and French models.

Shakespeare fertilized German literature, and Lessing, Herder, Schiller, Goethe and other German authors have in their turn left their mark on the literature of England, France and other countries. It is not at all true that a literary tradition in the country of the poet is needed to urge him on.

He will be urged on by his own genius, by the example of the literatures of other nations, by his contemporaries, in fact by the entire magnificent bequest of past ages. To call all the works of a poet ' tentative,' because some of them are not as perfect or as important as others, or to deny superiority to any, because some fall below the highest standard, is to play with words, or, at best, a most unfortunate attempt to enlighten the public on a subject in regard to which the speaker himself is sorely in need of light. Chailes A. Are the authors that preceded Shakespeare of more importance than Lessing and Wieland?

Saalfield, Adah Louise Sutton

Was the influence of Herder of less consequence than that of the whole lot of tragedy writers whose pieces were swept into oblivion by Shakespeare? What tradition operated in the case of Shake- speare that was not active also in the case of Goethe? Might we not much more justly say that in this respect Goethe had unquestionably an advantage over the British poet? Had Goethe experimented for a new literature, it would have been easy for him to write twice as many dramas as he did — to produce an epic with all the paraphernalia of gods and goddesses, or of angels and archangels, and to imitate any successful composition under the sky.

But he did his work in a very different spirit. He claimed emphatically and repeatedly that poetry was inspiration, and in this sense he looked upon his productions as the necessary outcome of instinctive mental action, the relation between poet and poem, to use his own simile, being like that between the bird and the egg she laid. This inward force that made him write was independent of caprice and wilfulness.

The subject took hold of his mind, stayed there a while and was finally detached in a poetic form. How is it possible to speak of a writer of such spontaneity and naturalness as an experimenter? This characteristic feature in Goethe appeared early and is so persistent throughout his poetical career that it has been noticed by every fairly careful reader. It is just as evident in his prose writings as it is in his poetry. Among the former we might specially mention the ' Campaign in France ; ' among the latter his elegy on Schiller and the four stanzas which bear the superscription Urworte ' Orphisch '.

In all these compositions, from the concrete, matter-of-fact descriptions of the ' Campaign' to the philosophical elevation of the Urworte we find the direct, individual and 38 Goethe. The idea of experimenting is utterly incompatible with such a process of composition. To speak of imitations of Martial, etc. A poet who reaches the age which Goethe did might have imitated every poet that ever wrote without incurring the risk of being judged by his imitations.

Did Goethe imitate Euripides in his Iphigenia? Did he, as Professor Dowden says, falsify the Greek iphigenia? He imitated the Greek poet as to the general outline of the drama — and he was original in every essential feature of his own drama. But because he was original, i. A remark- able way of arguing — which would leave a new poet no choice as to the use of an ancient subject! Euripides, representing the thoughts and feelings of a later generation, both imitated and changed — or must we say with Professor Dowden falsified the maiden and the goddess and the furies?

Difficile est satiram non scribere. I have felt compelled to use the great name of Shakespeare in order to point out the illogical character of the ' Case against Goethe,' because there is no other poet of modern, and perhaps of ancient times also, who compares with Goethe in the power and universality of genius pure and simple. But it has never occurred to me to compare the two great poets in other respects.

In Shakespeare's great dramas the passionate element prevails, hence they are eminently fit to fix the attention and to engage the sympathy of the spectators, both high and low, edu- cated and uneducated. This peculiar dramatic quality Goethe does not show, if we except the first part of Faust, and Egmont, in any of his dramas. What he shows may to some appear as of a higher order, appealing to the aristocrats of culture rather than to the masses ; at any rate, it must be classed separately from such soul-stirring pictures of passion as Macbeth, Othello, King Lear.

At the same time we find that the most pathetic tragedy ever written is nevertheless the work of Goethe, i. It is even more popular outside of Eng- land than any of the great tragedies of Shakespeare, but Goethe composed it, so to speak, by a happy accident tradition and personal experience joined , and he approached its interest, without quite equaling it, only in Egmont. The circumstance deserves to be particularly considered as long as such utterances as we find in the ' Case against Goethe ' can be prominently displayed before a Goethe Society.

The delicate fancy, the graceful sentiment and the easy flow of animated, infinitely varied and suggestive language in Shakespeare's comedies and other dramas have justly elicited the admiration and praise of the best critics. The theatrical work of Shakespeare impresses us as the basis of Shakespeare's fame, and as something that, taken as a whole, has never been equaled.

We overlook blemishes and faults and judge from the general and overwhelming impression. With Goethe the case is different. In their own way such dramas as Tasso, Iphigenie, Egmont, Faust are possibly as per- fect and as successful as any that were ever written. Shake- speare approaches the style of Goethe's dramas in his Hamlet, a drama in which action is subordinate to thought and fancy, as it is in the dramas of Goethe.

But Goethe's character as a poet and a thinker is not completely and solely revealed in his dramas as Shakespeare's is in his, and as was nearly the case 40 Goethe. Perhaps, as some maintain, his genius was epic or lyric rather than dramatic ; at any rate, the proof of his unrivaled and undisputed superiority as a poet is found in his lyrics rather than in his dramas, and even in the latter the lyric passages are distinguished by such a glow of feeling and beauty of form and coloring that we are often carried away by them, instead of feeling the impulse of the dramatic action.

It would nevertheless be a great mistake to deny that Goethe ranks among the very greatest masters of personal characterization. His creations of characters have never been surpassed and but rarely equaled. And what infinite variety there is in them! What delicacy of shading! What felicity in often revealing a whole character by a single trait! From Werther to Faust, from Gretchen to Iphigenie — what a wealth of delineation! What fidelity of painting! In the interest of fairness one might be tempted to ask : "How did a scholar like Professor Dowden arrive at his state- ments and conclusions?

It is not probable that he expressed views without previous examination; what, then, was the nature of this examination? He found Goethe much admired by men to whom he could not deny the capacity of profound critical insight, and he was forced to admit that the great man was an original thinker of great force, an excellent judge of human nature, and unquestionably a poet and finished writer. Goethe wrote a few epigrams in the style of Martial — forth- with his critic puts him down as an experimenter ' who follows foreign models,' as though it were possible to do anything what- ever in the line of art of which there could not be found parallel attempts in the past ; as though the using of a form once in- vented deprived the one who used this form afterward of the right to be called original, no matter how individually new his work may be!

Professor Dowden surely knows that the iambic lines which we call blank verse and which were used by Shakespeare were imitated from the French and Italians ; that he borrowed the form of his sonnets from the Italians, and that, if we may say that Goethe occasionally imitated some one in the matter of form, we are forced to say the same of Shakespeare and every other poet.

And right here our critic gets entangled. On the one hand he charges Goethe with being an experimenter who follows foreign mcdels, because he wrote in the style of Martial and of Homer ; and on the other, he pities him because he lacked a great tradition, as though there could be a greater tradition than the tradition of the best poets of all the ages.

He virtually says to him : "If you write a novel like Werther, I count for nothing the note of individual truth which rings through the work — but I condemn the whole work as an imita- tion, because I find that the author used the epistolary form made popular by Richardson and Rousseau, and showed that he was greatly impressed with the characteristics of Rousseau and Ossian. In conclusion one general remark. A truth that underlies nearly all the shallow criticism of this sort remains to be stated, though it is a truism rather than a new statement.

Goethe spent the greater part of his life in a small town, at a petty court and amid surroundings that would not allow the expansion of great tragic force, even if this had been the poet's specialty. When we compare, in respect to their fate and the conditions of their lives, poets like Shakespeare, Racine, Corneille and Moliere with Goethe, we notice at once that the former sought and found the centre of their poetic activity in the capital of their country, and in close proximity to the court, while Goethe lived in a country which was yet far from having attained that unity which made a common capital and a single prominent court possible.

There was no public for tragedy in a small place like Weimar, the stimulus to write tragedy was therefore wanting, and the same was true of the higher comedy. Germany had not yet recovered from the terrible fate brought upon her by foreigners as a consequence of the great reformation. The glory of Luther's mighty work his people paid for, in the thirty years' war, by the most terrible ruin that ever befell a great nation. Subsequently, divided into hundreds of little states, Germany fell an easy prey, at the beginning of this century, to the most skillful general of the age who had sole control of the immense resources, not only of France, but of a large number of allied German and Italian states.

The national regeneration, though it was only a partial one, which caused and followed the expulsion of the French in , found Goethe too old a man to be stimulated by it. His Charles A. Schiller, who was ten years younger and endowed with a different temper, was far more under the influence of the events of his time, especially the French revo- lution ; his tendency was more readily fixed, because he lacked the wide range of the older poet and was less likely to be diverted from the line of work which gave him at once such brilliant promise of success.

Schiller had suffered oppression, hence his fiery outburst of suppressed feeling in the Robbers. Goethe had more or less enjoyed life — he had been rather fortunate in all he had undertaken, hence his temper remained genial ; it never became revolutionary ; and while he very well saw that with the success of the French revolution, after the cannonade of Valmy, a new era of history had begun cf. Cam- pagne in Frankreich he judged rightly that the fanatical fury of the French did not suit the Germans.

His life became con- templative, because no great misfortune stirred his indignation ; his poetry epic and lyric rather than dramatic, because the con- flicts in which he was involved were of an inward, personal nature, and he stood aloof from the greater political life that goes on in a great state and throbs at a great capital.

Hence the absence of violent contrasts in his dramas, of passion un- controlled, and wickedness pure and simple. His Mephistopheles even is not a devil of such incarnate wickedness as Shakespeare's Iago. There is not a ray of humanity in Iago, but Goethe's Mephistopheles is at least humorous at times, and he never tries to appear better than he is. Is Iago, therefore, a more artistic figure than Mephistopheles? I doubt that greatly, but he is undoubtedly a more dramatic one.

British Romanticism and Continental Influences

Goethe was imbued with the modern view of natural history which sees in the world an infinite series of transitions, and nowhere an abrupt contrast. He did not believe in com- pletely bad men as Shakespeare did, and, therefore, he did not paint such. In this we cannot help finding his undoubted superiority over Shakespeare and almost all other poets of the 44 Goethe. But he knew that men can be very weak when tempted, and he painted such men with the irresistible truthful- ness of genius.

This is already clearly visible in his Werther and his Goets. The striking originality of these two works can be denied only by a doctrinaire of the worst type — and by Professor Dowden, let us add, when he is not quite himself. But in all of these we meet with not a single character that is thoroughly bad or so moved by passion, or by a wicked purpose, as to excite our indignation. They satisfy the demands of the highest intelligence, and it is true that the highest intelligence, any more than the best taste, is not found with the multitude.

It is, however, also true, and deserves to be noted as a proof of the marvelous power of the poet's genius, that, though devoid of the popular elements of intense passion and ferocious hatred, some of his works have had a popular success of the most pronounced type. No play on the stage is more successful, even in a popular sense, than Faust ; few equal Egmont in effectiveness — one must have seen the play well acted to appreciate this — ; while Hermann und Dorothea has always been dear to the whole German people, and has been praised by other nations wherever it has become known.

Tasso and Iphigenie as dramas are great and perfect works of art, but they appeal to the cultured few rather than the masses ; and the same may be said of the two great novels. Whether or not Goethe might have produced more dramas of a type to attract the masses, if he had been placed in a city like London in the stirring age of Elizabeth, or in Paris at the court of a luxurious and glory-loving king like Louis XIV.

If Professor Dowden, or any one else, should answer it in the negative, I should feel that no particular injustice were done to Goethe. Goethe would not be Charles A. The dramatic intensity of Othello and Macbeth is very different from the moral and soulful pathos in Faust, Egmont, Tasso, Iphigenie ; but to say that the former is necessarily superior to the latter is to assume that one knows to the very core the art and the genius of both Shakespeare and Goethe.

Professor Dowden may be justified in his assumption of such a knowledge, but that it is an assumption and nothing else will scarcely be doubted by any one who will take the pains to study the works of Goethe. Chicago, Iu,. In the library of the University of Gottingen, under the cipher Cod. PhiloL, , is to be found the manuscript of a Low German ballad, which according to the introductory title had been composed to commemorate the futile attempt of Gen- eral Piccolomini to take the town of Gottingen during the thirty years' war in The ballad had been composed by a Gottingen student and seems to have enjoyed much popularity among the townspeople.

A further search revealed the fact that there existed also a printed copy of the poem upon a sheet of coarse unsized paper, and, further, that the manuscript was only a copy of the printed text made evidently by some one who desired to obtain the words and was unable to purchase a printed copy, the edition having been most likely very limited.

This I judge to be the case as the title of the piece clearly states, that it was printed at the request of many good friends by a local printer and presumably, therefore, had a very limited circulation. Be that, however, as it may, the MS. As alluring as it is to imagine that the song was written shortly after the events it describes and sung by the happy burghers in gratitude for their deliverance, the length of time which elapsed before it was printed in renders this im- probable.

It is more likely that its student author was not a contemporary of Piccolomini but that he lived a century later and being perhaps a native of Gottingen, had become interested in this episode of the town's history and so worked it up into ballad form. This is, however, only a theory and it is possible that further search might reveal additional evidence which would definitely settle the date of composition. The manuscript was purchased for the Gottingen library by Professor Roessler in together with various other manuscripts and original documents.

The ballad does not appear in Ditfurth's collection of Historische Volkslieder and, as far as I have been able to discover, has never been reprinted. Before giving the text of the poem, it will perhaps be well to describe in brief the events which it commemorates. It was toward the close of the thirty years' war when the imperial forces laid siege to the town of Gottingen. The Arch- duke inarched with his entire army to Einbeck, a 'small town about twenty miles north of Gottingen, which he captured in a few days.

Taking up his headquarters at Northeim, about twelve miles from Gottingen, he sent a summary demand to this latter place to surrender. This the magistrates refused to do, pleading as an excuse their duty and oath to their sovereign the Duke of Braunschweig-Liineburg. Thereupon Archduke Leopold, with the Bavarian general Octavio Piccolomini and the imperial army, made his appearance before the town. This was on October 21 of the year In all probability Pic- colomini was the actual leader of the forces as in the ballad he plays the principal role.

In the surrounding villages they threw up breastworks and dug trenches. The inhabitants of the town courageously made two sorties, in both of which they were successful, capturing among others a lieutenant-colonel, a captain and a lieutenant. The besiegers replied by a pro- longed bombardment of the town, lasting from between eight and nine in the evening to two o'clock in the morning. In spite of the fact that large fire-balls weighing about one hundred and fifty pounds were thrown into the town, but comparatively little damage was done, especially by fire, owing to the vigilance of the citizens.

During the bombardment, says the historian, there was visible between eleven and twelve o'clock, as a special token of the grace of God, directly over the town, a clearly defined rainbow adorned with the appropriate colors. After vainly attempting to take the town, in the night of the sixth of November, the imperial army abandoned the siege and stole silently away.

So much for the historical account of the siege. Without stopping long to inquire into the veracity of the historian or as to the probability of such an extraordinary phenomenon as a rainbow at midnight, it might be said in passing that such an occurrence is not impossible. Provided only that the moon was Daniel B. Nah sihner eigenen Meldie. Picclemin, wat wuttu dauhn, Wuttu verdeinen dat Kayser L,ohn, En grater Generahl blieven, Sau maustu henna Gbttingen thein, Un maust sei da verdrieven. Asze hei nun boven Elligehusen kam, Da deen dei Kayserschen gegen ohiri stahn, Sei wohren hahch vermahten, Sei deen tau Boveden ower marcheren, Sei wollen den Rosen upfraten.

Oberste Rose sprack sine Saldaten an, Jii Brunswikker daut nah Gottingen gahn, Un daut jock tapper wehren, Un wenn dei Kayserscben acbter jock kobmen, Will eck meek bable iimkahren.


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Asze recbt dei Scharmiitzel soil ergabn, Un nun ein Kabrl bihn annern stahn, Da deen dei Kaysersclien uhtrihten; Sei leipen uht der ersten in dei annern Scbantze, Dat Gewehr deen sei wegschmihten. Hei siilwenst wohrt gefangen nohinen, Dat dorfft hei neimand klagen. Asze hei dei Schantze un weer flickt, Un naher nah der Stadt herruckt, Woll hei nich langer teufen.

Hei brochte achte Stiicke an der Thahl, Dei sollen Gottingen bedreufen. Dat hett meek leider Wunder. Wat was 6t doch vor Einbeck gauth, Dei Borgers hadden ennen schlechten Mauth, Asze wie dat Fiier nin schmehten, Dei Gottingers lachet osk noch dartau uht, Soil osk dat nich verdreiten. Isz denn nun hier kein mann bekand, Dei osk brocht in ein anner Land, Wie mochten hie werden erschlagen, Un wenn dei Schweden achter osk kohmen, Konne wie dat nich verdragen.

Sau geht denn hen den Brick den Brack, Vor Gottingen konne wie nich blieven. Dei Papen hadden nich gerne vernohmen, Dat sey nich wohrn in Gottingen kohmen. For as is well known, and has been very ably expressed in an article Der Bauer und die Kunst Preussiscke Jahrbiicher, January, , the gulf which education and refinement has to-day placed between the cultured classes and the peasants did not formerly exist. In physiognomy and in nature the upper classes and peasants during the Middle Ages and down almost to the eighteenth century were practically identical.

This humor is especially instanced in one passage of our poem which, however, because of its broadness is offensive to modern ears. Still it is entirely free from cynicism and illustrates only the naive standpoint of a man who is accustomed to call a spade a spade. Although beneath the title of the poem stand the words, Nah sihner eignen Meldie, the unknown author owed the metre of the song and the very rhymes of the opening stanzas to another Low German song very popular at the time. The opening stanzas are as follows : Due Krequi, hor, wat wultu dohn?

Wultu verwarft'n dat grote L,ohn, En got Frantzose bliefen? So mostu hen na Trier gahn De Dutschen dar weg driefen. Ach setestu biem Griitte-Pott, Et mochte dick wol baten. The similarity of this song to the other is too obvious to be overlooked and one is at once tempted to consider one as an imitation of the other. If we assume that the Gottingen poem was written but a short time before the date of its printing, the poem on the battle of Treves might very well have served as a model for the former. The similarity, however, is confined mainly to the opening stanza and this leads us to consider a second possibility, namely, that each poem arose independently of the other but in imitation of an older poem whose popularity and circulation were such as to cause it to be taken as the model for many poems of like nature.

An investigation has shown that this is, in fact, the case, the model being the famous ballad of Henneke Knecht, published by Bohme, Altdeutsches Liederbtich, as No. The author of the poem on the battle of Treves puts us on the right track by remarking under the title of the poem: "To singen na der Wiese: Henneke Knecht wat wultu dohn," etc. This ballad of Henneke Knecht is a capitally humorous account of a young farmer's lad, who runs away to sea in the belief that the life of a sailor must be infinitely superior to the dull drudgery of the farm.

No sooner, however, does he begin to feel the discomforts of that woeful malady seasickness than he wishes himself once more home. It is, as Bohme says, a good example of the failure to observe the advice of the old proverb: "Schuster bleib bei deinem Leisten. Baring, who was the first to rescue it from oblivion, speaks of it as follows: "Es ist das Henneke Knechts-Lied vor Jahren so bekannt gewesen, dass es Dayiiel B. Skumway, 55 fast bei alien Zusamrnenkunften, bey der Wiegen, und von den Kindern auf der Gassen auch sogar denen Vogeln vorgepfiffen und gesungen worden ist.

A comparison of the three ballads shows that the author of the one on the battle of Treves followed the Hcnneke Knecht closely in the first two stanzas and then, inspired by his own theme, struck out on independent lines and does not seem to have glanced at or thought of the model again. The result is a poem of decided merit, perfectly original with the exception of the opening stanzas.

The unknown Gottingen student, who described the siege of the town, evidently considered his muse too feeble to attempt an independent flight, or else felt that the very similarity of his poem to the original might guarantee its popularity, and followed the older poem so slavishly that almost every stanza bears evidence of copying. Ik geve dek en par nier schoh, den plog kanst du wol driven. Compare with that the first stanza of our poem : Picclemin, wat wuttu dauhn, Wuttu verdeinen dat Kayser L,ohn, En grater Generahl blieven, Sau maustu henna Gottingen thein, Un maust sei da verdrieven.

It will be noticed that each stanza consists of five lines, the first two rhyming with each other, then the third and fifth rhyming, while the fourth is in all cases unrhymed. With the 56 A Low German Ballad. The first half of the second stanza is similarly identical. In Henneke Knecht it runs : Henneke sprak sek en trotzich wort ' ' Ik wil nenen buren deinen vort solk arbeit wil ek haten.

This our author has retained as follows : Picclemin sprak en hastig Wohrt Eck will deu Kayser deiuen fohrt Den Brunswikker helpen kahten. Even the word Jiastig which he substituted for trotzich occurs in the next stanza of H. The first line of the fourth stanza of H. Similarly the beginning of the fourth stanza : Asze hei nun boven Elligehusen kam Da deen dei Kayserschen gegen ohm stahn seems to have been modeled on the sixth stanza of H. For the thirteenth stanza our author borrows the rhyme Sakk: Drakk from the eighth of H.

The remainder of the poem is freer from imitation of the older one. Only in two places is a similarity to be found. The twelfth stanza of H. This we find reproduced in the nineteenth stanza of our poem: Isz denn nu hier kein mann bekand Dei bsk brocht in ein anner land The opening line of the concluding stanza is likewise copied from H. With reference to the dialect, the two poems are quite inde- pendent.

This is, of course, to be expected as the form of so popular a ballad as H. Most probably he had learnt it orally and in the forms of his native dialect. The dialect of our poem is as well as I can make out that of Gottingen. Older 6 appears in the Gottingen poem as an, e. The vowel of the pret. Old at appears in H. The diphthong io appears in H.


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  7. In both poems, however, verdienen appears as verdeinen. Original e before r appears in Gottingen as a: harte Herz as usual in Plattdeutsch ; in H. This would seem to point to a dialect bordering on the Midland German as does also the retention of the old qu in the preterite of kommen. Jellinghaus, Zur Einteilnng der niederdeutschen Mundartcn, p.

    An exception to this is found in the pret. This agrees with Jellinek's description of the dialect p. The rhyme with schot may have influenced the spelling of grot, as older au generally appears as 5, cf. In the case of Lohn, High German may have influenced the spelling, as it rhymes with dauhn. The Gottingen poem is not entirely free from High German forms. In many cases these are proper names or technical terms, such as Oberste y Daniel B.

    In one or two cases, however, High German forms occur where no good reason exists. This is especially the case in the rhyme Seiten: gleiten, where H. The name of the deity also occurs in High German form : Gott. This is, however, to be expected as the L,ow German had yielded before this time to the High German as the language of the Church. University of Pennsylvania. The play gained great popularity from the very start, so that it made conquest of the stage throughout Germany and Austria-Hungary in an astonishingly short time.

    I have before me the thirty- fourth edition S. Fischer, Berlin , published in , when the play was hardly one year old. Woerner in her excellent little book on Gerhart Hauptmann. It is indeed the mysterious maiden from the strange land of romanticism, the Mignon of the end of the nineteenth century, who offers the treasures of symbolism, fairy tale and wilful fancy to our work-a-day world.

    Robin of Sherwood "german"

    This is the only one of Hauptmann's plays entirely in metrical form ; the metres employed are the tragic iambic verse of five stresses ; the heroic couplet ; Knittelvers, and irregular lyrical metres. It has five acts, and following the example of Ibsen no divi- sion into scenes within the acts. In the subsequent narrative of the action of the play I shall take the liberty of forming somewhat arbitrary groups of events according to dramatic con- sanguinity, if that term may be permitted, instead of the tradi- tional and merely formal division according to the entries and exits of the characters.

    In Act I we are at once introduced into the atmosphere which pervades the whole play, that of mountain and forest, meadow and fountain, and the mysteries of its teeming life in the guise of the creations of the fairy tale. There is a little gold-haired elf, Rautendelein Red Annie , mischievous, careless, eager for life, concerned only about the sunshine and the joys of her present existence ; there is Nickelmann, the watersprite, who inhabits a fountain, ugly, old, froglike, whose " Brekekekex, quorax, quorax " reminds us of Aristophanes' Frogs.

    He wants the lovely Rautendelein for his wife, but is scorned by her. Next appears the Waldschrat, the traditional satyr, the goatlike wanton of the woods, representing the baser side of animal existence, sensual, vulgar, fond of any kind of mischief regard- less of the consequences. The second scene begins with Heinrich, severely injured, dragging himself upon the mountain. And therein lies a tale of high adventure and danger. Rip-roaring fictional adventures of swashbuckling pirates and buccaneers of the Spanish Main. However, it is not all sport. Robin Hood and his band must also outwit the villainous Sheriff of Nottingham, who will stop at nothing to rid the forest of the outlaw.

    Merle Johnson has here gathered together in one volume all of the nineteenth-century author-artist's classic pirate stories that had been scattered through many magazines and books. Well researched and with richly drawn characters, Pyle's work will appeal to students of history and adventure lovers alike. Arrrgh me hearties!

    Treat yourself to these rousing tales of mayhem on the Spanish Main. Listen to the history of pirates, buccaneers, marooners, and their exploits, along with several interpretive biographies of encounters with REAL pirates, including Henry Morgan, Blackbeard, and others. Howard Pyle's heroic version of Robin Hood begins after a conflict with some foresters leads to Robin of Locksley becoming the outlaw famous for stealing from the rich and giving to the poor.

    Each chapter tells a different tale of Robin as he recruits Merry Men, resists the authorities, and aids his fellow man. Pyle's version includes the popular stories of Little John and Robin's staff fight, Friar Tuck's besting of Robin, Robin's collusion with Allan-a-Dale, and several of his conflicts with the Sheriff of Nottingham. Showing results by author "Howard Pyle". Filter By. Reset All. Under 1 Hour 2. Over 20 Hours 1.

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